The Adoption Home Study

If you live in the United States and are hoping to adopt a baby, you will need to complete an adoption home study.

For many hopeful parents, the adoption home study is one of the first steps taken in the adoption journey. Because it can take several months to complete, many adoption service providers, including Angel Adoption, recommend that prospective parents initiate this process as soon as possible.

What is the Adoption Home Study?

The adoption home study is an overview and assessment of a prospective family’s readiness to adopt by a licensed social worker. It incorporates many factors, including the gathering of important documents, home visits, interviews, and more. In a nutshell, the goal of an adoption home study is twofold. Social workers aim to:

  • Determine whether your family is emotionally, physically, and financially ready to adopt a baby
  • Educate and prepare your family for the adoption process

Adoption Home Study Requirements

Many states require a completed home study before a child can be placed in your custody as adoptive parents; therefore, we recommend you complete the home study process as one of the first steps in your adoption journey.

Adoption home study requirements vary from state to state, but on average, the process takes three to four months to complete. There is no set format that adoption agencies and organizations use to conduct home studies. They must follow the general regulations of your state, but they do have the freedom to develop their own application packet, policies, and procedures within those regulations.

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What is Involved in an Adoption Home Study?

Orientation and/or Training

Some adoption agencies and organizations will have prospective adoptive families attend one or several group orientation sessions or a series of adoption training sessions before they complete a home study application. Others will have a social worker start by meeting with family members and then ask that they attend adoption training later on.


To help determine if you are qualified to adopt according to the adoption home study requirements of your state, a social worker will interview you a number of times. You’ll likely be asked about such things as your experiences with children, your family and relationships, why you decided to adopt, your hobbies and interests, your approach to parenting, how you handle stress, and much more. The questions can get quite personal. In order to ensure the best possible outcome, it’s important to be honest with your social worker and yourself during these interviews. Remember, the goal here isn’t just to assess your readiness to adopt, it’s also to help educate and prepare you for the possibility of welcoming a new addition to your family.

Home Visit

Your social worker will complete at least one home visit during the process (but likely more). The social worker will need to view all areas of your home to ensure it can comfortably accommodate a child and is a safe place to raise a child. Some states might even require a visit from local health and fire safety departments.

Health and Medical Statements

Most states require adoptive parents to have had a recent physical examination by a health provider to confirm they are generally healthy and are physically and mentally capable of having and caring for a child. This can also include medical and immunization records.

Income Statements

Most states require you to submit proof of income and other financial documentation to prove your finances are in order and that you are financially responsible. This likely includes bank statements, tax returns, and other related documents.

Background Checks

To ensure the safety of all adopted babies and children, all states require criminal and child abuse record checks for adoptive parent applicants.

Autobiographical Statement and References

To give the social worker a better understanding of you, your family, and your background, you may be asked to write an autobiographical statement. You may also need to provide a number of people who can serve as references for you, some of whom may be required to be non-relatives.

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Adoption Home Study Checklist

The following is a list of some of the safety and home-related items that social workers may be looking for. While child-proofing furniture isn’t often required until a child is placed in the home, there are other safety concerns that prospective parents should prepare for.

  • Smoke & Carbon Detection: Your home should have functional and up-to-date smoke and carbon monoxide detectors according to state laws.
  • Fire Extinguisher: Make sure your home has access to an unexpired fire extinguisher on every floor.
  • Covered Electrical Outlets: All electric outlets within the home should be covered.
  • Proper Medication Storage: Both prescription and non-prescription medication should be stored safely and out of reach of children.
  • Safe Water Supply: The home’s water supply should meet state and local safety standards, including safe temperatures for hot water.
  • Safe Storage of Tools & Cleaning Supplies: Potentially dangerous tools, toxic household cleaning supplies, batteries, and other items in this category should be stored out of reach and inaccessible to children.
  • Telephone Access: The home should have access to either a landline or cell phone.
  • Outdoor Water Hazards: Ponds, pools, hot tubs, and other outdoor water hazards should have proper safety equipment around them, including fences or lockable gates.
  • Proper Firearm Safety: Any firearms in the household owned should be legally owned, safely stored, and inaccessible to children according to state law.
  • First Aid Equipment: Prospective parents should have a first aid kit and other emergency supplies.
  • Emergency Contacts & Home Evacuation Plan: A list of emergency contacts should be available, as well as a plan in place for a home evacuation in the event of a fire or other disasters.
  • Each state has different laws, which means that this adoption home study checklist isn’t definitive. Please reach out to your licensed social worker or trusted adoption professionals for additional items to prepare for.

    The Home Study Report

    The adoption home study report is a written report compiled by your social worker specifying his or her findings from the home study process. The report will detail information covered during the interviews and throughout the rest of the home study process, such as:

    • Personal and family background
    • Education, employment, and finances
    • Physical and medical history
    • Marriage and family relationships
    • Readiness to adopt a baby
    • Motivation for adopting
    • Feelings about infertility (if applicable)
    • Parenting and integration of the adopted child into the family
    • Family environment
    • Home environment and community
    • Religion/spiritual beliefs
    • Expectations for the adopted child
    • References and criminal background clearances

    The end of the report will feature a summary and the social worker’s overall adoption recommendation for your family.

    Individuals who hope to adopt a baby may face the entire adoption home study process with tender egos and mounting anxiety that they will not be approved. But when armed with accurate information and preparation, adoptive parents can face the home study experience with confidence and all the excitement that should accompany the prospect of welcoming a child into the family.

    Remember, the goal is to both evaluate and determine the safe placement of a child, as well as to educate and prepare prospective parents for building a family. While some questions and phases of the adoption home study may seem stressful, everyone is ultimately working together to secure the best possible future for a child.

    If you have any questions about the home study or any other aspect of the adoption process, please don’t hesitate to contact us. Our helpful team members will be happy to answer your questions and provide guidance in any way that they can.

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